Wednesday, October 9, 2019

Vitamin D in Saudi Arabia Literature review Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2750 words

Vitamin D in Saudi Arabia - Literature review Example Vitamin D deficiency affects both phosphorus and calcium digestion. The main role of vitamin D is to regulate calcium levels within acceptable ranges. It achieves this by increasing intestinal calcium absorption. In a vitamin D deficiency state, 10-15 % of dietary calcium is absorbed by the intestine (Brown, Ignatius, Amling, & Barvencik 2013, p.1733-1742). In a vitamin D sufficient state, 30% of dietary calcium is absorbed and during pregnancy, growth or lactation, the absorption can go as high as 80% with increased demand for calcium. In circumstances of vitamin D deficiency, low ionized calcium concentrations espouse the secretion of parathyroid hormone. The parathyroid hormone increases calcium reabsorption in renal tubes and increases 1, 25-1-hydroxylase activity, which results in increased 1, 25- dihydroxy vitamin D (1, 25(OH) 2-D) production (Azhar 2009, p.19-25).   Pregnant women and infants in Saudi Arabia suffer so much of these conditions. Secondly, during old age, men t end to have weaker bones due to reduced calcium and phosphorus concentrations. Increased PTH concentrations result in the loss of phosphorous within the urine. Decreased levels of phosphorus and calcium results in reduced bone mineralization. In addition, reduced phosphorus concentrations lead to failure of the expected apoptosis of hypertrophied chondrocytes.  Ã‚   Calcification delay of osteoid causes osteomalacia in established bones. Osteomalacia in undeveloped bones is known as rickets (Azhar 2009 p.19-25).     Rickets is a description of the abnormal organization growth of the cartilaginous growth plate (Hovsepian 2011, p. 3). The clinical description of vitamin D deficiency that results in rickets is based on bone deformity signs and pain and may be related to hypocalcemia. This condition in Saudi Arabia affects both adults and young people.  

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