Wednesday, January 29, 2020

Hobbes vs Rousseau Essay Example for Free

Hobbes vs Rousseau Essay In the 17th and 18th centuries, the Age of Enlightenment was an important cultural movement of intellectuals in Europe. Philosophers of the time interpreted many theories and concepts about man and inequality in civilization and also ideas about government and the ways in which society could be controlled. Many believed that humans were naturally good, while others believed that humans were inherently bad. The argument of nature has lasted throughout time without a definitive answer, but with centuries of philosophical arguments to aid in the understanding of our own human nature. Two important philosophers of this time period were Thomas Hobbes and Jean Jacques Rousseau. Both philosophers wrote about their ideas of human nature and the state of nature, also addressing equality within the state and the role government and civilization plays in man’s actions. While Hobbes had a very cynical view of man, believing man to be brutal and violent working only towards self-interest, Rousseau had a more positive view; depicting man as essentially good and compassionate, believing that only through society and civilization does man become corrupt. Although both philosophers’ arguments are well developed and supported, Rousseau’s understanding of the natural man and the state of nature is stronger than Hobbes’ opposing views. Rousseau’s positive view of human nature illustrates man as living in harmony with nature while Hobbes’ pessimistic view portrays man acting only for self-interest. Rousseau views the mankind as inherently good, capable of feeling compassion and pity for others around him as well as self-love. The condition of this natural man is a man without any forms of civilization, including clothes and language. Man is able to live individually, peacefully and in harmony when he is in this state of inh erent goodness. However, through civilization man becomes â€Å"wicked.† Oppression and dominance develop through the evolution of civilization, also creating inequality among men, destroying the harmony in which they lived. When man is able to satisfy his own needs, he is able to live peacefully (Rousseau 161). Through evolution of society, man is weakened and begins to depend on others to sustain his life, creating oppression and causing man to lose his natural goodness. Hobbes disagrees with Rousseau’s positive view of the nature of man, believing that men are instinctively violent and evil, acting only out of self-interest or for self-gain. He believes men are constantly in competition to become superior in worth or honor, creating continual jealousy and violence among each other. Hobbes believes that men are so brutal and wicked they are unable to survive as individuals but need a strong, central authority to force peace and cooperation among men. Hobbes states, â€Å"Without the terror of some power to cause them to be observed, are contrary to our natural passions, that carry us to partiality, pride, revenge and the like,† (Hobbes 106). Hobbes believes that in order to control man’s instinctive evil, they need to fear the law. Hobbes admits that inequality is a product of creating this commonwealth, but, unlike Rousseau’s idea of inequality in society, Hobbes says men are ignorant to the inequality, believing that the covenants create equal terms of law among men. This false sense of equality is able to control the violence and competition among men, allowing them to coexist more peacefully. So while Rousseau credits civilization to the destruction of peace and goodness, Hobbes does not believe man has any inherent goodness and thinks civilization is the only way to avoid war. Although Hobbes and Rousseau agree that in a state of nature men are equal, they have opposing views of what man is like in this state. A state of nature is a term used to describe a state lacking a form of government or laws. Rousseau believes in the state of nature, man lives individually in harmony with nature. Rousseau addresses this natural man as a â€Å"savage man,† stating that their actions are determined by their needs and these needs are met without the help of others. In this nature, men are peaceful and good. Men also have a natural sense of pity and compassion in this state (Rousseau 163). Because man lives solitarily, there is no one to dominate or control and thus no competition for power. Rousseau believes that this peace is sustained by the ability of the savage man to feel compassion, which allows them to govern the peace of their nature. However, this peace is diminished as inequality becomes prevalent through the progression of society. As property and family units evolved, man began to change his lifestyle and skills and talents developed (Rousseau 164). Families weakened man and woman in mind and body, causing them to rely on others to successfully fulfill their needs. This was the crucial part in development of oppression and domination, because inequality occurs when man becomes dependent on others to survive. Rousseau states, â€Å"But the moment one man needed the help of another; as soon as it was found to be useful for one to have provisions for two, equality disappeared, property appeared,† (Rousseau 167). The relationship between slave-master or worker-owner develop when men requires the help of another. Inequality creates oppression and domination, which, according to Rousseau, destroy man’s inherent goodness. Hobbes’ view of human nature contrasts Rousseau’s dramatically, seeing as Hobbes believed man to be naturally wicked and only through government systems are men able to live peacefully. Hobbes compares man to a machine, constantly in motion and always seeking something (3). He believes human nature is to act for their own self-interest, which causes men to be in constant competition for honor or worth, creating a state of war. Because Hobbes believes that men are constantly in a state of war, he believes that men are always trying to increase their power to be superior to others. He believes that in the state of nature where man is not governed by central authority, men are constantly in competition. Jealousy and competition among men make it impossible for men to live peacefully in a state of nature, creating the need for a strong, central authority to govern over the peace of man. Contrary to Rousseau, Hobbes believes that government is a way for people to â€Å"get themselves out of that miserable condition of war,† by governing peace that men are incapable of alone (Hobbes 106). Hobbes believes that through strong government, men are forced to coexist peacefully, because covenant creates a false sense of equality among men. Hobbes believes that men are incapable of surviving individually, unlike Rousseau who believes that men are better made to live individually. Their differing views of inherent behavior create contrasting conceptions of the state of nature. Based on their arguments of the nature of mankind, Rousseau’s explanation of man is more complete and logical than Hobbes’. In Rousseau’s view of nature, man is essentially good, able to survive on his own and able to peacefully coexist. This view of man could be considered naà ¯ve by some, but it must be considered that this man is also the â€Å"savage man,† a man before any form of civilization. Rousseau explains that a man is inherently good in a state of nature because he has no desire for power, but does feel pity. Rousseau goes into an in depth description of the development of inequality among men, describing oppression and domination developing and the ways in which these factors destroyed man’s intrinsic goodness. Man was unable to live individually in the new state of society, which destroyed their natural goodness. Being unable to live individually, they were forced to rely on others, which created domination and inequality, which leads to competition for power and corruption. The inequality also led to the diminishment of pity and compassion, which was crucial to man’s ability to peacefully coexist. Rousseau’s thorough time-line of man’s condition created a stronger and more agreeable argument than Hobbes’ pessimistic view of man.

Tuesday, January 21, 2020

Disparities in Health of Children :: Teaching Education

Disparities in Health of Children Abstract There has been much research that verifies the existence of health disparities among different socioeconomic groups and different racial and ethnic groups. I will take a look at this research to determine why these disparities exist and how these effect the education among those who experience it. When we consider the education of our children in the United States, we must consider their health as a significant issue as it can positively or negatively impact a student’s education. It has generally been acknowledged that there is a great disparity in our country in the area of health care. Healthy People2010, a published report put out by the Health and Human Services Division of the Unites States Government (2000) has included as part of its Goals for 2010, to eliminate health disparities among different segments of the population. According to this report, health differences occur depending on a persons gender, race or ethnicity, education or income, disability, rural locality, or sexual orientation. In this paper, I will mostly concentrate on racial and ethnic differences as well as socioeconomic differences. According to the Healthy People 2010 report, biological and genetic differences do not explain the health disparities experienced by non-White populations in t he United States. Besides "complex interaction among genetic variations, environmental factors, and specific health behaviors," Health and Human Services says, "inequalities in income and education underlie many health disparities in the United States." Also, "population groups that suffer the worst health status are also those that have the highest poverty rates and least education." Health, United States (1998) reported that each increase of income or education increased the likelihood of being in good health. According to this report, those with less education tend to die younger than those with more education for all major causes of death including chronic diseases, communicable diseases and injuries. There are several factors that account for differences between socioeconomic and racial and ethnic groups. These factors include a lower sedentary life style, cigarette smoking and less likely to have health insurance coverage or receive preventive care among these groups. Those who live more sedentary life styles are at risk for heart disease, diabetes, and high blood pressure, all things that effect lower-socioeconomic groups more often than those in higher income brackets. Those who are less educated are also twice as likely to smoke cigarettes as the most educated.

Monday, January 13, 2020

Adolescent and Predictable and Unpredictable Elenents of This Transition and Associated Life-Stage Essay

Abdallah. Ayda Critical Reflection Essay Introduction Within the context of nursing there has been a significant change in nursing in the last two decades, where nursing and medical knowledge has led to changes where patients can no longer stay in hospital and reduction in hospital beds. Professionals who are employed in the healthcare industry are dealing with acutely ill patients who are in more need of care (usher et al 2009). As professionals we must discover the nature that is offered to us by responding and using reflective thoughts to enhance the important aspects in society (Lauder et al 2004). And qualified nurses, acknowledge and understanding is essential for their practice to remain current, continuous improvement in reflecting on our thoughts, and what we do becomes Habitual to our practice (usher et al 2008). It is a necessity for nurses to use critical thinking as it helps gather relevant information to assist practitioners in examining assumptions and identify relatio nships and patterns (Parker & Clare 2000). We begin this chapter by exploring the concept of critical reflection and why it is important for a nurse, as well as provide an over view of the related legislation that requires the use of reflective thinking in practice by registered nurses, the next section addresses the Gibbs Cycle of what, why and overview of definitions of reflection. Nurses are becoming more aware of the need to utilize and improve their practice, as well as consider the political, social structure issues affecting it. (Taylor 2000). As changes are occurring with the nursing context it is essential for nurses to analyze and respond to different challenges. Initiatively, reflection is the foundation of organizing difficult situations when faced, it also is easily understood, if any problem aroused in the work place (usher et al 2008). John (1998), explains the description of reflection of when being faced with contradictions allows practitioners to assess, think critically and reflect on their practice. In addition reflection is a process which allows existence in acknowledge in the way nursing theory, for example can. Reflection is cognitive in relation to changes of things we do which is not a technique or curriculum element. See more:  First Poem for You Essay Reflective practice enables practitioners to learn from their experiences and what they do, how they do it, what they say in relation to their home  and work, in the significant of others and wider society and culture. Nurses who engage in some form of activity are set out by regulatory authorities indicate an adoption with the Australian Nursing and Midwifery Council, (ANMC). Competency standards for registered nurses (2005), in the early 1990’s Australian Nursing and Midwifery Council, (ANMC) had first adopted the national competency standards for registered nurses. Establishment of the organization was in 1992, to develop a national approach to nursing and Midwifery regulation. To ensure and deliver safe competent care, the (ANMC) worked together with the state and territory nursing and midwifery authorities (NMRAS) to produce national standard. In relation, to the AHPRA’S Scheme, which came into effect of 1st of July, 2010, the operations are governed by the health and practitioner regulation national law Act, 2009 (QLD) and each state and territory. In addition with the national scheme, responsibility was taken over for the regulation of nurses and midwifes in Australia, and taken ownership of the national competency standard for registered nurses. The minimum care standards for a nurse in Australia are the 4 domains provisions and coordination of care, professional practice, critical thinking and analysis, collaborative and therapeutic practice. The domains of reflections which also include self-appraisal reflecting on ones own practices by feeling and beliefs and professional development. The domains have all been set out for the nurse to reflect on practice, reflectively and ethically (Australian Nursing and Midwifery Council 2008a, 2006). Reflections a verb which means to reflect on one thought (Hancock 1999). This might recall what one thinks and memories in a cognitive act such as overviewing identifying error. (Taylor 2000). Reflection is an activity in the guidance of an action before it happens. (Francis 1995). Rolfe et al (2001), argue that knowledge for practice that does not come from text books or lectures. In addition they call it scientific knowledge that practitioners pick up from everyday knowledge, reflection is the process of theorizing about that knowledge. In consideration, of the reflective views of recognizing strengths and weaknesses and my education enables me to make positive changes to my future practice by using Gibbs Cycle model. Gibbs Reflective Cycle ï‚ · ï‚ · Gibbs model begins with asking what happened. What was your feeling? This allows me to think what accured at the time of event. ï‚ · ï‚ · ï‚ · What was my role in the situation? What was I trying to achieve and what action to take? What was the response of others and what they thought? We move from the second stage of Gibbs Cycle. ï‚ · ï‚ · ï‚ · ï‚ · What does this tell me about my patients? What is the model is model of care I am using? How is my attitude towards the patient? What should I have done to make this better? Final stage of Gibbs model. ï‚ · ï‚ · What do I need to do to make things better? Question myself about improving patient care; widen my knowledge to improve patient care. Conclusion: During my research I began to acknowledge the fact that critical reflection is essential in nursing to enable to look back words on errors made in the work place. Gibbs Cycle is the tool in reflecting back on thoughts and actions accomplished by nurses. If we look back on what we do and how we do it, high care of patient care can be monitored easily without causing harm in the work place. (ANMC) embraces all nurses and practitioners to engage in some type of activity to enhance reflective thinking as it helps in gathering relevant and current information as it is part of the legislation. I feel it has come to my mind that critical reflection it is an important tool on reflecting ones thoughts. Perception of my role: Critical reflection has knowledge me to look backwards and think of things we do. It has changed my perception of nursing as my knowledge expanded enormously towards my role as a nurse since commencing my university degree. I feel I have a responsibility as a nurse to follow the nursing and midwifery council scheme to remain current.

Sunday, January 5, 2020

The Fallacy of Democracy as a Political Philosophy

The fallacy of the notion of democracy as a universally sound political philosophy is becoming ever apparent with increasingly transparent governments. One does not need to conduct extensive research in order to unveil the truth about the farcical portrayal of democracy the general public is subject to. The propagation of neoliberalism and consequently, increasingly capitalist markets, has led to an incredibly skewed economy, with the richest two percent of the global population having acquired over half of the world’s total wealth. In a global society where wealth equates to power, I feel that it can be inferred that what the average citizen deems a fair democracy is, in reality, heavily influenced by the wealthy ruling class. The United States, for instance, has consistently been subject to the illusion of democracy. Most American believe in their hearts that they live in a Democracy. Schools, Universities and other institutions have managed to instill in the average American, the belief that they are living the ‘American Dream’ in the best democracy in the world. Despite popular belief, the term democracy is, in fact, perverted to give the impression that everyone matters and has a voice. The United States, being a Republic, is constantly distancing itself from the fundamentals of a democracy the further it moves away from the one person, one vote principle. Yes, there are names on the ballot and votes are cast, and the winners serve their terms the office, butShow MoreRelatedMalcom X And The Civil Rights Movement1105 Words   |  5 Pagesthe Bullet† speech of Malcom X can be considered as a direct response to â€Å"I have a Dream† speech of Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Malcom X and Dr. Martin were taking a stand for the true freedom of the same community but with a diagonally opposite philosophies. 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